5. The First Generation of Landscape Painters in Rome

At this point we must go back to the beginning of the 17th century and turn our attention to landscape painting. Once again, fleeting mention at least must be made of the Flemish artists to avoid any gross misrepresentation of the image of the group of specialists in the field. Needless to say, landscape art in Rome did not assume a purely Flemish character due to the presence of the brothers Paul and Matthijs Bril.96 Venice and Bologna, in particular, could point to a vibrant local tradition, the leading representative of which in Bologna was Annibale Carracci (1560-1609). In 1600 the brothers Bril were joined in Rome by Adam Elsheimer (1578-1610), whose small landscapes with their mythological and biblical staffage evoked intense admiration. Whereas Matthijs Bril, who died as early as 1583, adhered to Mannerist landscapes, his younger brother Paul Bril (1553/54-1626), who was fortunate enough to be able to express himself in both frescoes and cabinet paintings, initiated a move towards naturalistic landscapes. The frescoes in Santa Cecilia in Trastevere (c. 1599) [i][i] and the Vatican (1606/7) [i] – to mention just two of his works – are outstanding atmospheric landscapes which had a great impact.97

Paul Bril   and studio of Paul Bril   and Cristoforo Pomarancio  
Saint Anthony of Egypt c. 1600
fresco (technique) / stucco, 60 x 80 cm
Basilica di Santa Cecilia in Trastevere (Rome), Rome

Paul Bril  
Fresco cycle in the Santa Cecilia in Trastevere in Rome c. 1600
fresco (technique) / stucco, ? x ? cm
Basilica di Santa Cecilia in Trastevere (Rome), Rome

Paul Bril  
Rocky landscape with a waterfall and a hermit c. 1605-1607
fresco (technique) / stucco, ? x ? cm
Palazzo Apostolico (Vaticaanstad), Vaticaanstad

The older Guilliam van Nieulandt I (c. 1560-1626), whom the Italians called Guglielmo Terranova, was in Rome with his nephew Guilliam van Nieulandt II (1584-1635) before the turn of the century.98 The latter, who was trained by Paul Bril, returned to Antwerp in 1604 and later settled in Amsterdam.99 We are familiar with a number of his charming drawings in pen and wash of Roman ruins, the layered composition of which was a feature characteristic of his teacher [i][i].100 These topographically fascinating sketches must have been very popular north of the Alps. In 1618, van Nieulandt published in Antwerp a book of engravings of ancient Roman ruins, for which he probably also used drawings by his uncle who had remained in Rome. He made etchings after works by Bril as well.101 His paintings were much plainer and more schematic than those of his model. His nephew, Adriaen van Nieulandt (1586/7-1658) , who probably never went to Rome, also painted views of the city, for which he was able to find sufficient models in the north.

Guilliam van  Nieulandt (II)  
View of the Quirinal in Rome dated 17 October 16(03]
pen in brown ink / paper, 274 x 434 mm
lower right :  palatso de .../ monte cavael .../ In Roma al ... / 17 ottober 16[...]
Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Braunschweig, no. Z 1272

Guilliam van  Nieulandt (II)  
Italianate mountainous landscape with two men in the foreground, a river and buildings beyond dated 1604
pen in brown ink / paper, 165 x 213 mm
lower left :  Roma G. Nieuwelant / 1604
Stichting P. en N. de Boer, Amsterdam, no. 467

In taking Adam Elsheimer as their source of inspiration, a second exclusively Dutch group to visit Rome in the first decade of the 17th century largely turned their backs on pure landscapes. This group included Pieter Lastman (1583-1633)[i], Jan Tengnagel (1584-1635), Jan Pynas (c. 1581/2-1631)102 [i][i] and his brother Jacob Pynas (c. 1592/3-after 1650),103 Mozes van Wtenbrouck (c. 1595-1647)104 and Hendrick Goudt (c. 1583-1648), the latter not as a painter but as an engraver of Elsheimer’s compositions [i].105 The members of this group discarded the Mannerist flourishes of their youth, embracing instead the composed, classical style characteristic of Elsheimer and Carracci. Like Dutch Caravaggism, this movement runs counter to the dissemination of Dutch art, so we will have to content ourselves here with this brief reference to it.106

Hendrick Goudt   after Adam Elsheimer  
Tobit and the angel near a river dated 1608
engraving / paper, 135 x 191 mm
bottom (positional attribute) :  ælsheimer pinxit/Incolumis Raphaele viam monstrante Tobias/Tu quoæ si sequeris quo custos Angelus anteit/Per varios casus itæ reditæ domum/Securus cæli regna Paterna Subis//H Goudt sculpt/Rome 1608
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, no. RP-P-H-N-37

Pieter Lastman  
View of the Palatine in Rome dated 1606
pen in brown ink / paper, 164 x 230 mm
lower left :  Roma 1606
Private collection

Jan Pynas  
View of the Tiber in Rome c. 1605
black chalk / paper, 185 x 310 mm
Private collection

Jan Pynas  
Laban searching for his stolen household gods dated 1617
pen in brown ink / paper, 183 x 244 mm
lower right :  Jan Pynas ft / Romae 1617
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, no. RP-T-1911-87

Gerard ter Borch I (1582/83-1662), who travelled to Rome via Germany and Venice, resumed the tradition established by Maarten van Heemskerck, Paulus Bril and the Nieulandts of producing drawn vedute of ruins. Between 1607 and 1609 he drew the Colosseum in Rome [i], Constantine’s Arch [i], the ‘termo Antoniano[i][i] and many other ruins. He also searched for motifs ‘buytten Roma’ (outside Rome) [i][i]; he went to Tivoli and was in Naples in 1610 [i].107

Gerard ter  Borch (I)  
Garden of the Villa Madama, outside of rome dated 1609
inkt / paper, 275 x 195 mm
upper left :  G.T.Borch.F. buijtten Rome. Anno 1609
Rijksprentenkabinet, Amsterdam, no. RP-T-1887-A-872

Gerard ter  Borch (I)  
Landscape with the Ponte Milvio, outside of Rome dated 1609
inkt / paper, 138 x 265 mm
upper left :  G.T.Borch.F.buijtten Roma. Anno 1609
Rijksprentenkabinet, Amsterdam, no. RP-T-1887-A-873

Gerard ter  Borch (I)  
View of Naples and Vomero dated 1610
pen in brown ink / paper, 137 x 202 mm
upper left :  G.T.B.Fecit tot Napeles. Anno 1610
upper right : 
in verso :  G.T.Borch Sr.
Rijksprentenkabinet, Amsterdam, no. A 881

Gerard ter  Borch (I)  
Ruins of the Colosseum in Rome dated 1609
pen in brown ink / paper, 175 x 270 mm
upper left :  G.T.Borch.F. in Roma. Anno i609

Rijksprentenkabinet, Amsterdam, no. A 867

Gerard ter  Borch (I)  
North side of the Arch of Constantine in Rome dated 1609
pen in brown ink / paper, 165 x 270 mm
upper left :  G.T.Borch.F in Roma. Anno 1609
Rijksprentenkabinet, Amsterdam, no. A 866

Gerard ter  Borch (I)  
Ruins of the baths of Caracalla in Rome dated 1607
pen in brown ink / paper, 186 x 258 mm
upper left :  G.T.Borch. Fecit in Roemen. Anno 1607
upper left :  terme Antoniano
Rijksprentenkabinet, Amsterdam, no. A 865

Gerard ter  Borch (I)  
Ruins of the baths of Caracalla in Rome probably 1609
pen in brown ink / paper, 197 x 250 mm
in verso :  terme antoniano
Rijksprentenkabinet, Amsterdam, no. A 876

François van Knibbergen (1596/7-after 1664) was in Italy in 1614 and Pieter de Molijn (1596-1661) entered his name in Wybrand de Geest’s (1592-1661) friendship album in Rome in 1618,108 but there appears to be no firm evidence of Jan van de Velde’s (1593-1641) sojourn in Rome.109 None of Knibbergen’s ‘Italian’ works have survived; he followed so closely in the wake of Jan van Goyen that there are no Italian elements whatsoever in his style. Various works recalling their stay in Italy have come down to us from Jan van de Velde II and Pieter de Molijn. The two drawings by Molijn, however, are works based on the memories of his youth that he produced as an old man in Holland in 1653 and 1658 [i][i].110

Pieter de Molijn  
Fantasy landscape with the temple of the Sibyl in Tivoli dated 1658
black chalk / paper, 191 x 301 mm
upper left :  P. Molijn / 1658
Musée du Louvre, Paris, no. 22.756

Pieter de Molijn  
Fantasy view with de Ripa Grande in Rome dated 1653
black chalk / paper, 142 x 195 mm
upper right :  Molyn 1653
Hessisches Landesmuseum (Darmstadt), Darmstadt (Germany), no. AE 837

More important for our purposes and of greater significance is the graphic oeuvre of Cornelis van Poelenburch (1594/5-1667)111 and Bartholomeus Breenbergh. Poelenburch was in Rome from 1617 to 1622, although he spent some time during those years in Florence [i], where he must have met Jacques Callot. It can be assumed that Poelenburch also learned from Elsheimer and he will definitely have admired Bril’s works. However, he was probably the first Dutch landscape painter whose works attracted attention in Rome because of their artistic and not their topographical character and consequently found their way into Italian collections.112 Poelenburch’s charming cabinet pieces featuring dancing putti and rejoicing angels [i] as well as a peaceful flight into Egypt [i] are more graceful than the mythological images of Francesco Albani (1578-1660) from Bologna, who was highly regarded by his contemporaries. Poelenburch also presents his vedute in a new guise [i][i].

Cornelis van Poelenburch  
Capriccio of Roman ruins with figures and cattle, Castel Sant' Angelo in the background 1620 (dated)
oil paint / copper, 40 x 54,5 cm
lower left :  MDCXX
Musée du Louvre, Paris, no. 1084

Cornelis van Poelenburch  
Ruins in Rome with a bas-relief with Mark Anthony c. 1620
oil paint / copper, 44 x 57 cm
Musée du Louvre, Paris, no. 1086

Cornelis van Poelenburch  
Mozes striking the rock (1617 - 1625)
oil paint / copper, 45,5 x 63,5 cm
Palazzo Pitti, Florence, no. 1220

Cornelis van Poelenburch  
Sine Cerere et Baccho friget Venus (1625 - 1667)
oil paint / panel, 54 x 73,7 cm
Palais des Beaux-Arts de Lille, Lille (France), no. 604

Cornelis van Poelenburch  
Landscape with the rest on the flight into Egypt 1625-1667
oil paint / copper, 23,8 x 26 cm
Vassar College Art Gallery, Poughkeepsie (New York), no. 65.9

One senses that he had experienced the mood of the south and attempted to capture its sunny glow on light paper and with rapid strokes of the brush. His drawings are thus freed of the final vestiges of the pedantic rendering of antiquity with which artists were still burdened as a legacy of the 16th century. He viewed the Arch of Titus from an unconventional and unrepresentative angle [i] and was fond of picturesque ruins and ancient statues which cast peculiar harsh shadows [i]. His works were occasionally engraved, although they forfeited a great deal of their painterly charm in the process. It was perhaps not until he was back in Holland that Poelenburch produced most of his vedute, for like all his contemporaries he naturally invented other compositions at home that were based on his abundant memories of Italy. When he was in the country he seems to have preferred red chalk for his drawings.113

Cornelis van Poelenburch  
Relief on the inside of the arch of Titus in Rome dated 1621
brush in brown / paper, 326 x 229 mm
lower right :  in roomen 1621
Rijksprentenkabinet, Amsterdam, no. RP-T-A 3724

Cornelis van Poelenburch  
Kolf-players at an ancient ruin dated 1622
inkt / paper, 188 x 315 mm
lower left :  C: Poelenburgh: f
lower right :  in Roomen 1622
Rijksprentenkabinet, Amsterdam, no. RP-T-1909-44

This type of landscape art was continued by Bartholomeus Breenbergh (1598-1657), who was active in Rome from 1620 to 1629 [i][i].114 He started out as a pupil of Paulus Bril and his rich drawn oeuvre makes it possible to monitor his progress from Mannerism to the natural rendering of nature from a predominantly aerial perspective. In all probability the older Poelenburch nudged him in the right direction. The landscape images he produced during his time in Rome are painted in a gentle and airy manner in the style of Poelenburch [i]; later on he was exposed to other influences which led him to embrace Amsterdam-style classicism.115

Bartholomeus Breenbergh  
Ruin landscape with Saint Peter and John c. 1625
oil paint / copper, 24 x 33,3 cm
lower right :  BB. f.
Museum Schloss Wilhelmshöhe, Kassel (Hessen), no. GK 205

Bartholomeus Breenbergh  
The Duke of Bracciano at the Lake of Bracciano dated 1627
pen and brush in brown / paper, 266 x 419 mm
lower right :  Bartholomeo. Breenberch. f. Ao. 1627 (sic).
upper left :  A Il Duca di Bracciano. B Il Principe Gaetano. C Il Duca di Bassanelli. D. Gentilhomo. E Gentilhomini. F Il Carozzo del Duca e G Staffieri. H Bracciano. I Barto. Bredinbergh
Rijksprentenkabinet, Amsterdam, no. RP-T-1967-73

Bartholomeus Breenbergh  
In the park of castello Bomarzo dated 1625
pen / paper, 407 x 280 mm
upper center :  A Castel Bomarso
center right :  BBreenbergh f.a./Roma./1625
Fondation Custodia - Collection Frits Lugt, Paris, no. 4478

Breenbergh’s drawings are very similar to the early works of Claude Lorrain (1604/5-1682). Claude is said to have worked in the studio of Agostino Tassi (1578-1644) in 1617 when he was 13 years of age. He then disappeared from sight before re-emerging in Rome in 1625 and again in 1627. By this time, however, Breenbergh had already consolidated his painterly, ‘sunny’ style, which Claude admired and must have assimilated. We mentioned earlier that Claude and Breenbergh knew each other, since they were next door neighbours, as it were, in the Via del Babuino in 1625.116 Claude may have incorporated some Netherlandish elements from Agostino Tassi as well. Tassi, who worked with Remigio Cantagallina (1575-1656)117 in Livorno around 1600, was in Rome when he met Paulus Bril, whose works made a great impression on him.118 Evidence of this is provided by Tassi’s coastal views in Palazzo Lancellotti [i][i] and Palazzo Doria Pamphili [i][i]. In these scenes, which date to the second half of the 1630s, Tassi moves beyond Bril’s layered composition. Could it be that he, too, perceived something in the loose and airy renderings of the Dutch landscape painters? It was not given to the Dutch artists to try out this style in frescoes, but Tassi, who copied one of Bril’s cabinet paintings [i], will also have been familiar with the paintings and drawings by Poelenburch and Breenbergh.

Agostino Tassi  
Fantasy Landscape with the temple of Sibyl c. 1625-1626
fresco (technique), ? x ? cm
Lancellotti Collection, Rome

Agostino Tassi  
Ships next to an Italian coastal landscape c. 1625-1626
fresco (technique), ? x ? cm
Lancellotti Collection, Rome

Agostino Tassi  
Wallfrieze Cycle for Urban VIII in the Palazzo Doria Pamphilj c. 1624-1630
fresco (technique), ? x ? cm
private collection  Pamphilj collection, Rome

Agostino Tassi  
Two ships by the beach c. 1624-1630
fresco (technique), ? x ? cm
private collection  Pamphilj collection, Rome

Tassi’s pupil Gottfried Wals (c. 1595/1600-in or after 1638), a native of Cologne who according to Baldinucci was Claude Lorrain’s teacher, must also have made drawings in the manner of Breenbergh, although no definitive judgment can be made on the basis of the few unsigned works that have survived [i].119 It is strange, however, that the 60 landscapes and 14 gouaches recorded in the collection of the Gaspar Roomer (1595-1674) should have disappeared entirely.120

Gottfried Wals  
Ruins at the banks of a river c. 1590
brown ink / paper, 145 x 145 mm
Musée du Louvre, Paris, no. INV 14523, Recto

Be that as it may, the Dutch played an active part in the formation of the Romantic image of Italy, which Claude would later perfect. The ties between this early group of Northern European, French and Italian artists become closer if we include the Bamboccianti genre painters, especially the Fleming, Jan Miel, who added staffage figures in the style of the Dutchman, Pieter van Laer, to paintings by Sacchi, Tassi and Claude. In the 1630s, the landscape art of Elsheimer and Breenbergh experienced a harmless second flowering in the works of Claes Moeyaert (1591-1661), Nicolaes Latombe (1616-1676), Marten de Cock,121 Jan van Bronchorst (c. 1603-1661) (who specialised in etchings after Poelenburch) [i]),122 Steven van Goor (1607/8-after 1659) and Chaerles de Hooch (died 1638) [i].123 Jan Both, who viewed the Roman Campagna through the eyes of Claude Lorrain in the second half of the 1630s, marks the start of a second period of Dutch landscape painting which we will examine later.124

Jan van Bronchorst   after Cornelis van Poelenburch  
Ruin of the Arch of Constantine at Rome after 1625
etching / paper, 204 x 263 mm
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, no. RP-P-BI-4896

Chaerles de Hooch  
Landscape with the Emmaus goers (in the background: Rome, temple of Marcus Curtius or S. Teodoro on the Palatine) dated 1627
oil paint / panel, 46 x 66 cm
below, right of the middle :  Chaerles D hooch 1627
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, no. SK-A-2218


96 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] General reference works on landscape painting in 17th-century Rome include Salerno 1977-1980 and Trezzani 2003.

97 [Gerson !942/1983] Baer 1930, p. 60 ff. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] For the Roman frescoes of Matthijs and Paul Bril: Hendriks 2003.

98 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] The elder Van Nieulandt arrived in Rome on 22 October 1597, while his nephew Guilliam is recorded as living in the Via Paolina in 1602 and 1603.

99 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Following his Italian sojourn, Guilliam II stayed for some time in Amsterdam, then etablished himself in Antwerp (1606-1629) and spent the last years of his life (1629-1636) in Amsterdam.

100 [Gerson 1942/1983] Blok 1925. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Schatborn 2001, p. 38-43.

101 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Guilliam II van Nieulandt as a printmaker: Te Slaa 2014.

102 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Jan Pynas was in Italy twice, once in 1605-1607 and once in 1616-1617 (Schatborn in Luijten et al. 1993-1994, p. 579; Schatborn 1996; Schatborn 2001, p. 46-50).

103 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Presumably Jacob travelled to Italy with his brother Jan, during Jan's second trip in 1616-1617. However, there is no archival evidence for this, and Jacob may also have borrowed Roman motifs from drawings and paintings by his elder brother and from other artists’ examples (Schatborn 2001, p. 49).

104 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Until 1964 it was commonly assumed that Wtenbrouck went to Italy; there is however no indication whatsoever that he did (Weisner 1964, p. 291).

105 [Gerson 1942/1983] Weizsäcker 1928. Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Hendrick Goudt, a descendant from a Dutch noble family, lived for several years in the Elsheimer household (1607-1610) and also acted as a benefactor of the often heavily indebted painter. After Elsheimer’s death he laid claim to several works and took them back to Utrecht. On the somewhat uneasy liaison between the two: Klessmann 2006B, p. 30-31). For the engravings Goudt made in Rome and Utrecht: Klessmann 2006A, p. 185-188.

106 [Gerson 1942/1983] For more recent literature on this group: Müller 1929 (P. Lastman), Schneider 1921 (J. Tengnagel), Bauch 1935A en Bauch 1935B (Jan Pynas), Bauch 1936 and Bauch 1937 (Jacob Pynas). Werner van den Valckert can also be counted to this group of transitional masters (Hudig 1937). [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Seifert 2006, p. 212-219; Seifert 2008.

107 [Gerson 1942/1983] Sheets from a sketchbook in Amsterdam (inv.no. 865-884). See also Blok 1925, p. 122-129. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] McNeil Kettering 1988, vol. 1, p. 12-32.

108 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] For the digitized album of Wybrand de Geest in the Frisian library, click here. See also Rus 2014. De Molijn’s entry is on fol. 57v. Beck 1998 wrongly doubts De Molijn's presence in Rome, which is evidenced by his contribution to the album amicorum Wybrand de Geest: 'In Rome den 6 junij 1618/Pieter du Molyn' (de Geest 1614). No paintings from De Molijn’s Italian years are known, but he created works with Italian subjects later in his career.

109 [Gerson 1942/1983] Van Gelder 1933, p. 6. He also copied sheets from Guilliam van Nieulandt! [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Van Gelder assumed Jan van de Velde II had been in Italy on the basis of a drawing now firmly attributed to Jan Pynas by Schatborn (RKDimages 120417), illustrated above (Schatborn 1996, fig. 11, Schatborn 2001, p. 47, fig. A).

110 [Gerson 1942/1983] The drawings by Molijn in the Louvre and in Darmstadt.

111 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Poelenburch: Sluijter-Seijffert 1984 and Sluijter-Seijffert 2016. For the Gerson project, the paintings in Sluijter-Seijffert 2016 have been entered and largely updated in RKDimages.

112 [Gerson 1942/1983] It is said that there were 17 works by him in Montecassino, that the Grand Duke of Tuscany owned works by his hand, and that his works were also represented in the collection G. de Roomer. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Poelenburch’s position in the art market in Italy: Sluijter-Seijffert 2016, p. 30-33.

113 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] The large group of 44 red chalk landscape drawings kept at the Uffizi, formerly attributed to Poelenburch, is no longer considered autograph (Schatborn in Kloek/Meijer 2008, p. 128-130). The undisputed drawings from Italy are mainly executed in pen and brush in brown ink, over traces in black chalk.

114 [Gerson 1942/1983] See the drawing mentioned in note 3, p. 151 [=note 127], that must however still have originated in Italy. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] The drawing is dated 1627, but was published by Hoogewerff as bearing the date 1629 (Hoogewerff 1929, p. 163).

115 [Gerson 1942/1983] Stechow 1930; Naumann 1933. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Gerson’s perception of the gentle and airy manner of Poelenburch in the landscapes of Breenbergh’s Roman period was based on two paintings, probably counterparts, in the Louvre (RKDimages 231597 and 231595). They were wrongly attributed to Breenbergh since they were catalogued in the Musée Napoléon in 1813, an attribution which was endorsed by Stechow (Stechow 1930, fig. 1). Schaar determined in 1959 that these works are actually by Poelenburch and he noted that these wrong attributions have distorted the perception of the early works of both Poelenburch and Breenbergh for a long time (Schaar 1959, p. 36-37, fig. 11). However, the painting in Kassel, considered to be painted in Italy c. 1625, is close to Poelenburch’s style (Schnackenburg 1996, p. 17, 68).

116 [Gerson 1942/1983] See Gerson 1942/1983, p. 75. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Hoogewerff 1942, p. 21; Vodret 2011, p. 241. Although the archival source mentions ‘Bartolomeo Pittore’ without further indications, most scholars agree on the identification with Bartholomeus Breenbergh.

117 [Gerson 1942/1983] The draughtsman and engraver Remigio Cantagallina belonged to the circle of landscapists who were dependent on Paul Bril. In 1612-1613 he was in Brussels. Images in Goldschmidt 1935. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Loze/Vautier et al. 2017.

118 [Gerson 1941/1982] On Tassi: Hess 1935. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Cavazzini 2008B.

119 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Repp 1986, p. 94-120, lists 17 drawings that have been attributed to Wals. Among these sheets only the highly sophisticated circular drawing in the Louvre (illustrated here) can be considered autograph (Sutherland Harris 1978).

120 [Gerson 1942/1983] Vaes 1925, p. 184. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Capaccio 1634, p. 865: ‘Sessanta paesi del Goffredo Todesco […] oltre a quattordici quadri fatti a guazzo, del Todesco’. Over time approximately 15 paintings have surfaced that can be convincingly attributed to Wals. Salerno 1977-1980, vol. 1, p. 186-199; Repp-Eckert 1985-1986, Repp 1986, Repp-Eckert 2006. Instead, no gouaches by Wals are known. On the Roomer collection, see also note 146 and § 12.

121 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] It is uncertain whether we are dealing with two masters, Marten de Cock (1605-1631) and Marten de Cock (1578-1661), or with one. The known works of the artist(s) do not clearly show two different hands and could be by each one of them. However, nothing points to an activity in Italy.

122 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] In 1959 Hoogewerff wrongly identified Jan van Bronchorst with a ‘Ghilardo Bruchus[t]i’, who lived with ‘Stefano Boltrii Fiamengo Pittore’ (Stefan Boltrij?) in Strada Margutta in the parish of Santa Maria del Popolo in March 1621 (Hoogewerff 1959, p. 139). Now the artist is thought not to have been in Rome at all; his sons Johan van Bronchorst (1627-1656) and Gerard van Bonchorst (c. 1636-1638) however did stay in Rome. Gerard worked in the style of Cornelis van Poelenburch and is thought to have been his pupil (Th. Döring in Saur 1992-, vol. 14 [1996], p. 355).

123 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] An artist’s trip to Italy was not a prerequisite for this ‘second flowering’, as the careers of Moeyaert, De Cock and Bronchorst show. Chaerles de Hooch occupies a special place, since his Italianate landscapes date from 1627 onwards. Gestman Geradts convincingly argues that De Hooch, who was a nephew of Margaretha of Parma, visited Italy between 1624 and 1627 and stayed with the Farnese family. He named his sons Alexander and Horatius after the brothers of his uncle, Octavius Farnese (Gestman Gerards 2017).

124 [Gerson 1942/1983] See for this group: London 1926; Hind 1926; Boyer 1933; Bartoli 1911; Egger 1931. Added to this: Orbaan 1917 and Orbaan 1933.